Handout Kuliah 10: Penyelesaian Sengketa


Sumber: buergenthal dan maier, 1990; shelton, 2006.  


  •      Penyelesaian secara damai.

  •      Penyelesaian dengan kekuatan.

 Dasar Pengaturan:

  •      Article 2 (3) UN Charter, requires all members to: “settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security, and justice, are not endangered”.

  •      Article 33 UN Charter: “The parties to any dispute, the continuance of which is likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace and security, shall, first of all, seek a solution by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means of their choice”.

 Metode Penyelesaian Damai:

  •      Metode Non-yudisial (non-judicial method).

  •      Metode semi-yudisial (quasi-judicial method).

  •      Metode yudisial melalui pengadilan (Judicial method).

 Non-judicial method:

  •      Metode tradisional:

  •     Negosiasi.

  •     Inquiri.

  •     Mediasi.

  •     Konsiliasi.

  •     Kombinasi negosiasi, mediasi, dan konsiliasi.

 Quasi-judicial method:

  •      Arbitrase

  •     Perbedaan dengan adjudikasi lain.

  •     Klausa arbitrase/perjanjian arbitrase.

  •     Consent to arbitrate.

  •   Compromis

  •     Komposisi majelis arbitrase.

  •     Putusan (award)

  •     Hukum yang berlaku (applicable law) dan sumber hukum.

  •     Arbitrase internasional.

 Judicial method:

  •      Lembaga yudisial internasional yang permanen. International Court of Justice (ICJ).

  • Contentious jurisdiction. (Yurisdiksi/kewenangan menyelesaikan sengketa)

  •     Advisory jurisdiction. (Yurisdiksi/kewenangan memberikan nasehat hukum/pendapat hukum)

 ICJ-Contentious jurisdiction:

  •      Dasar
  •      Asas timbal balik (reciprocity).
  •      Pertimbangan keamanan nasional.
  •      Efek dan pelaksanaan putusan. 

ICJ-advisory jurisdiction:

  •      Skopa.
  •      Ciri hukum.
  •      Contoh:
    •     1962, keputusan Court tentang biaya-biaya pemeliharaan perdamaian (peacekeeping expenses) di Republic of Congo dan Timur Tengah melahirkan “expenses of the organization” yang dibiayai oleh negara-negara anggota PBB dengan porsi yang ditentukan oleh General Assembly. 

Peradilan Internasional lain:

  •      International Criminal Court (ICC)
  •      Court of justice of the European Communities.
  •      European Court of Human Rights.
  •      Inter-American Court of Human Rights.

Semuanya merupakan lembaga peradilan yang bersifat permanen. 

Penyelesaian dengan kekuatan (Use of Force):

  •      Jika penyelesaian secara damai gagal.
  •      Penggunaan kekuatan (the use of force).
  •      Pemeliharaan perdamaian oleh PBB (UN Peacekeeping).
  •      Pemeliharaan perdamaian oleh organisasi regional.
  •      Perjanjian pertahanan regional 

Penggunaan kekuatan (the use of force):

  •      Pasal 37(1) Piagam PBB.
  •      Kewenangan Dewan Keamanan.
  •      Namibia case, 1971, ICJ adv.op.
  •      Peran Majelis Umum dan Sekretaris Jenderal.
  •      Pembelaan diri (self-defense).
  •      Tujuan kemanusiaan (humanitarian objectives). 

Pemeliharaan Perdamaian PBB (Peacekeeping):

  •      Kewenangan Dewan Keamanan.
  •      Penerapan sanksi.
  •      Kasus Uniting for Peace Resolution (1950).
  •      Unarmed observer atau personel militer.
    •     Dimulai tahun 1948 (Konflik Israel-Palestina). Observer sipil.
    •     1956, pasukan perdamaian pertama: Suez.
  •      Keberhasilan dan kegagalan.
  •      Biaya yang mahal.
  •      Sampai 2004:
    •     Terdapat 59.000 personel dalam 16 operasi di seluruh dunia. (1994: 79.000).
    •     130 negara telah berperan dalam 59 operasi.
    •     Telah jatuh korban: 1.800 peacekeepers.
    •      Peacekeeping oleh organisasi regional:
      •     Dasar: Pasal 52-54 Piagam PBB.
      •     Atas otorisasi dari Dewan Keamanan. 


Perjanjian pertahanan regional:

  • Interpretasi Pasal 51 Piagam PBB: “Nothing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures necessary to maintain international peace and security. Measures taken by Members in the exercise of this right of self-defense shall be immediately reported to the Security Council and shall not in any way affect the authority and responsibility of the Security Council under the present Charter to take at any time such action as it deems necessary in order to maintain or restore international peace and security”
  • Tujuan: Menyediakan collective self defense.
  • NATO; Pakta Warsawa; SEATO. 

International Criminal Court (ICC):

TUGAS 2: Jelaskan sejarah pembentukan Rome Statute.

  •      Rome Statute, 1988.
    • To try and punish individuals for the most serious crimes of international concern: genocide, crimes against humanity, crimes of agression, and war crimes.
  •      Terwujud per 1 Juli 2002 setelah diratifikasi oleh 60 negara.
  •      Yurisdiksi global. 

Perbedaan dengan ICJ:

  • Shelton:
    • ICC is not an organ of the United Nations.
    • The ICC handles cases involving individual criminal responsibility, whereas the ICJ mainly decides legal disputes between nations. 

Yurisdiksi ICC:

  • The most serious crimes of international concern if they are committed after July 1, 2002, either:
    • By a citizen if a nation that accepts the statute, or
    • By a person of any nationality on the territory of a nation that accepts the statute.
  • Nations that are not parties to the statute may voluntarily accept the court’s jurisdiction on a case-by-case basis.
  • UN SC can grant the court jurisdiction for a specific situation even when the nation in which the crime occurred is not a party to the statute.
  • Criminal case: when a national court is unwilling or unable to carry out the investigation or prosecution.
  • There is no exemption for the head of states, legislators, and other high-ranking government officials.
  • Crimes in the court’s jurisdiction are not subject to a statute of limitation; there is no time limit on bringing charges. 

TUGAS 3: Apakah Amerika Serikat meratifikasi Rome Statute? Apa yang menjadi dasar argumentasi AS? 

Kejahatan yang diadili ICC:

  •      Genocide;

  •      Crimes against humanity;

  •      War crimes;

  •      Crimes of aggression – (membutuhkan keputusan dari Assembly of State Parties).

  •      GENOCIDE: The commission of certain acts with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group.

  •      CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY: Certain acts committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack against any civilian population.

  •       WAR CRIMES: Acts prohibited by the 1949 Geneva Conventions on the law of war and 26 other serious violations of the laws and customs of war including pillage, using of poison weapon or poison gas etc. Civil war but excludes “internal disturbances”.

 TUGAS 4: Apakah kasus Timor Timur pasca referendum dapat digolongkan dalam jenis kejahatan ini? 

Struktur dan Administrasi ICC:

  •      Hakim (the Judges); 18 judges.

  •     Elected by the Assembly of States Parties.

  •     Expert either in criminal law and procedure or in relevant areas of international law, such as human rights law or the law of armed conflict.

  •     Single term: 9 years.

  •     No two judges of the same nationality.

  •      Administrasi: 

  •     Para hakim dipimpin oleh Presidency: a president, first vice president, and second vice president. Elected by the court’s judges for three-year terms.

  •     Pretrial, trial, and appeal chambers.

  •      Pretrial: authorize investigations by the prosecutor. May issue orders, warrants, and summons. Victim and witness protection and ensure due process for the accused.

  •      Trial: conduct a fair, speedy trial to convict or acquit the accused, and to sentence the convicted.

  •      Appeal: to reverse or amend conviction and sentences and to order new trials.

  •      The Registrar (Panitera). Elected by the judges to a five-year term.

  •      The Prosecutor (Penuntut).

  •     Conducting investigations and prosecutions.

  •     Elected by the Assembly of States Parties; for a single nine-years term.


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